03. Early Europe & Colonial Americas, Art & Humanities

Materials, Processes, and Techniques in Early European and Colonial American Art

Materials, Processes, and Techniques in Early European and Colonial American Art
*Note: The enduring “Enduring understanding,” “Learning Objective,” & “Essential Knowledge” language comes from the 2019 AP Art History Curriculum and Exam Guide.

Enduring Understanding:  Art and art making take many different forms both within and across cultures, and the materials, processes, and techniques employed may also vary by location and culture with wide-ranging influence on the art that is generated.

Learning Objective: Explain how materials, processes, and techniques affect art and art making.

Essential Knowledge: Developments in the form and use of visual elements, such as linear and atmospheric perspective, composition, color, figuration, and narrative, enhanced the illusion of naturalism.

Suggested Works:

  • 51. San Vitale. Ravenna, Italy. Early Byzantine Europe. c. 526–547 CE. Brick, marble, and stone veneer; mosaic.
  • 53. Merovingian looped fibulae. Early medieval Europe. Mid-sixth century CE. Silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones.
  • 55. Lindisfarne Gospels: St. Matthew, cross-carpet page; St. Luke portrait page; St. Luke incipit page. Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon) Europe. c. 700 CE. Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum).
  • 57. Pyxis of al-Mughira. Umayyad. c. 968 CE. Ivory.
  • 59. Bayeux Tapestry. Romanesque Europe (English or Norman). c. 1066–1080 CE. Embroidery on linen.
  • 67. Pazzi Chapel Basilica di Santa Croce. Florence, Italy. Filippo Brunelleschi (architect). c. 1429–1461 CE. Masonry.
  • 76. School of Athens. Raphael. 1509–1511 CE. Fresco.
  • 80. Venus of Urbino. Titian. c. 1538 CE. Oil on canvas.
  • 85. Calling of Saint Matthew. Caravaggio. c. 1597–1601 CE. Oil on canvas.
  • 87. Self-Portrait with Saskia. Rembrandt van Rijn. 1636 CE. Etching.
  • 94. Screen with the Siege of Belgrade and hunting scene. Circle of the González Family. c. 1697–1701 CE. Tempera and resin on wood, shell inlay.

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