*Note: The enduring “Enduring understanding,” “Learning Objective,” & “Essential Knowledge” language comes from the 2019 AP Art History Curriculum and Exam Guide.
Enduring Understanding: Art and art making take many different forms both within and across cultures, and the materials, processes, and techniques employed may also vary by location and culture with wide-ranging influence on the art that is generated.
Learning Objective: Explain how materials, processes, and techniques affect art and art making.
Essential Knowledge: Developments in the form and use of visual elements, such as linear and atmospheric perspective, composition, color, figuration, and narrative, enhanced the illusion of naturalism.
- 51. San Vitale. Ravenna, Italy. Early Byzantine Europe. c. 526–547 CE. Brick, marble, and stone veneer; mosaic.
- 53. Merovingian looped fibulae. Early medieval Europe. Mid-sixth century CE. Silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones.
- 55. Lindisfarne Gospels: St. Matthew, cross-carpet page; St. Luke portrait page; St. Luke incipit page. Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon) Europe. c. 700 CE. Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum).
- 57. Pyxis of al-Mughira. Umayyad. c. 968 CE. Ivory.
- 59. Bayeux Tapestry. Romanesque Europe (English or Norman). c. 1066–1080 CE. Embroidery on linen.
- 67. Pazzi Chapel Basilica di Santa Croce. Florence, Italy. Filippo Brunelleschi (architect). c. 1429–1461 CE. Masonry.
- 76. School of Athens. Raphael. 1509–1511 CE. Fresco.
- 80. Venus of Urbino. Titian. c. 1538 CE. Oil on canvas.
- 85. Calling of Saint Matthew. Caravaggio. c. 1597–1601 CE. Oil on canvas.
- 87. Self-Portrait with Saskia. Rembrandt van Rijn. 1636 CE. Etching.
- 94. Screen with the Siege of Belgrade and hunting scene. Circle of the González Family. c. 1697–1701 CE. Tempera and resin on wood, shell inlay.