03. Early Europe & Colonial Americas, Art & Humanities

AP Art History: Purpose and Audience in Early European and Colonial American Art

AP Art History: Purpose and Audience in Early European and Colonial American Art
*Note: The enduring “Enduring understanding,” “Learning Objective,” & “Essential Knowledge” language comes from the 2019 AP Art History Curriculum and Exam Guide.

Enduring Understanding:  A variety of purposes may affect art and art making, and those purposes may include, but are not limited to, intended audience, patron, artistic intention, and/or function. Differing situations and contexts may influence the artist, patron, or intended audience, with functions sometimes changing over time, and therefore affecting the role these different variables may play in art and art making.

Learning Objective: Explain how purpose, intended audience, or patron affect art and art making.

Essential Knowledge:  Corporate and individual patronage informed the production, content, form, and display of art—from panel painting, altarpieces, sculpture, and print to myriad decorative arts, such as metalwork and textiles. Displayed in churches, chapels, convents, palaces, and civic buildings, the arts performed various functions (e.g., propagandistic, commemorative, didactic, devotional, ritual, recreational, and decorative).

Catholic Church patronage:

Religious Organization patronage:

    • 73. Last Supper. Leonardo da Vinci. c. 1494–1498 CE. Oil and tempera.
    • 77. Isenheim altarpiece .Matthias Grünewald. c. 1512–1516 CE. Oil on wood.

Royal patronage:

    • 61. Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France, Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bibles moralisées .Gothic Europe. c. 1225–1245 CE. Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum).
    • 86. Henri IV Receives the Portrait of Marie de’ Medici, from the Marie de’ Medici Cycle. Peter Paul Rubens. 1621–1625 CE. Oil on canvas.
    • 93. The Palace at Versailles. Versailles, France. Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart (architects). Begun 1669 CE. Masonry, stone, wood, iron, and gold leaf (architecture); marble and bronze (sculpture); gardens.
    • Wealthy patronage:
    • 97. Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo. Attributed to Juan Rodríguez Juárez. c. 1715 CE. Oil on canvas.
    • 98. The Tête à Tête, from Marriage à la Mode .William Hogarth. c. 1743 CE. Oil on canvas.
      Read more: AP Art History: Pilgrimage

Essential Knowledge:  Surviving architecture is primarily religious in function (though domestic architecture survives from the late Middle Ages); both ground plans and elevations accommodated worship and incorporated symbolic numbers, shapes, and ornament.

Religious architecture:

    • 58. Church of Sainte-Foy Conques, France. Romanesque Europe. Church: c. 1050–1130 CE; Reliquary of Saint Foy: ninth century CE, with later additions. Stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary).

Essential Knowledge:  Audiences’ periodic rejections of figural imagery on religious structures or objects on theological grounds were common to all three major medieval religions. These artworks could facilitate a connection with the divine through their iconography (icons) or contents (reliquaries).

Religious figural imagery in conflict:

    • 54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George. Early Byzantine Europe. Sixth or early seventh century CE. Encaustic on wood.

Embracing religious figural imagery:

    • 58. Church of Sainte-Foy Conques, France. Romanesque Europe. Church: c. 1050–1130 CE; Reliquary of Saint Foy: ninth century CE, with later additions. Stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary).
    • 62. Röttgen Pietà. Late medieval Europe. c. 1300–1325 CE. Painted wood.

Essential Knowledge:  The emergence of academies redefined art training and
the production and identity of the artist by introducing more structured, theoretical curricula in centralized educational institutions.

Suggested Works:

  • 54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George. Early Byzantine Europe. Sixth or early seventh century CE. Encaustic on wood.
  • 58. Church of Sainte-Foy Conques, France. Romanesque Europe. Church: c. 1050–1130 CE; Reliquary of Saint Foy: ninth century CE, with later additions. Stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary).
  • 61. Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France, Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bibles moralisées .Gothic Europe. c. 1225–1245 CE. Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum).
  • 62. Röttgen Pietà. Late medieval Europe. c. 1300–1325 CE. Painted wood.
  • 73. Last Supper. Leonardo da Vinci. c. 1494–1498 CE. Oil and tempera.
  • 77. Isenheim altarpiece .Matthias Grünewald. c. 1512–1516 CE. Oil on wood.
  • 86. Henri IV Receives the Portrait of Marie de’ Medici, from the Marie de’ Medici Cycle. Peter Paul Rubens. 1621–1625 CE. Oil on canvas.
  • 93. The Palace at Versailles. Versailles, France. Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart (architects). Begun 1669 CE. Masonry, stone, wood, iron, and gold leaf (architecture); marble and bronze (sculpture); gardens.
  • 95. The Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe). Miguel González. c. 1698 ce. Based on original Virgin of Guadalupe. Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City. 16th century CE. Oil on canvas on wood, inlaid with mother-of-pearl.
  • 97. Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo. Attributed to Juan Rodríguez Juárez. c. 1715 CE. Oil on canvas.
  • 98. The Tête à Tête, from Marriage à la Mode .William Hogarth. c. 1743 CE. Oil on canvas.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *