03. Early Europe & Colonial Americas, Art & Humanities

AP Art History: Cultural Contexts of Early European and Colonial American Art

AP Art History: Cultural Contexts of Early European and Colonial American Art
*Note: The enduring “Enduring understanding,” “Learning Objective,” & “Essential Knowledge” language comes from the 2019 AP Art History Curriculum and Exam Guide.

Enduring Understanding: Cultural practices, belief systems, and physical setting constitute an important part of art and art making and are often communicated in various stylistic conventions and forms. Such cultural considerations may affect artistic decisions that include, but are not limited to, siting, subject matter, and modes of display, and may help to shape the creation of art in a given setting or within a given culture.

Learning Objective: Explain how cultural practices, belief systems, and/or physical setting affect art and art making.

Essential Knowledge:  Medieval artistic traditions include late antique, early Christian, Byzantine, Islamic, migratory, Carolingian*, Romanesque, and Gothic, each named for their principal culture, religion, government, and/or artistic style.

*Note: not directly tested on the AP Art History Exam

Early Christian Art:

Byzantine Art:

        • 50. Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis. Early Byzantine Europe. Early sixth century ce. Illuminated manuscript (tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum).
        • 51. San Vitale. Ravenna, Italy. Early Byzantine Europe. c. 526–547 ce. Brick, marble, and stone veneer; mosaic.
        • 52. Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul). Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. 532–537 ce. Brick and ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer.
        • 54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George Early Byzantine Europe. Sixth or early seventh century ce. Encaustic on wood.

Islamic Art:

Migratory Art:

        • 53. Merovingian looped fibulae. Early medieval Europe. Mid-sixth century ce. Silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones.

Romanesque Art:

        • 58. Church of Sainte-Foy. Conques, France. Romanesque Europe. Church: c. 1050–1130 ce; Reliquary of Saint Foy: ninth century ce, with later additions. Stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary).
        • 59. Bayeux Tapestry. Romanesque Europe (English or Norman). c. 1066–1080 ce. Embroidery on linen.

Gothic Art:

        • 60. Chartres Cathedral. Chartres, France. Gothic Europe. Original construction c. 1145–1155 CE; reconstructed c. 1194–1220 CE. Limestone, stained glass.
        • 61. Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France, Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bibles moralisées. Gothic Europe. c. 1225–1245 ce. Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum)
        • 62. Röttgen Pietà. Late medieval Europe. c. 1300–1325 ce. Painted wood.
Read more: Medieval, Renaissance, & Modern Art from a “Dummy”

Essential Knowledge: Medieval art (European, c. 300–1400 ce; Islamic, c. 300–1600 ce) derived from the requirements of worship (Jewish, Christian, or Islamic), elite or court culture, and learning. Elite religious and court cultures throughout the Middle Ages prioritized the study of theology, music, literary and poetic invention, and in the Islamic world, scientific and mathematical theory.

Medieval Jewish Art:

        • 64. Golden Haggadah (The Plagues of Egypt, Scenes of Liberation, and Preparation for Passover). Late medieval Spain. c. 1320 CE. Illuminated manuscript (pigments and gold leaf on vellum).

Medieval Christian Art: 

        • 48. Catacomb of Priscilla. Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 200–400 CE. Excavated tufa and fresco.
        • 49. Santa Sabina Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 422–432 CE. Brick and stone, wooden roof.
        • 50. Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis. Early Byzantine Europe. Early sixth century ce. Illuminated manuscript (tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum).
        • 51. San Vitale. Ravenna, Italy. Early Byzantine Europe. c. 526–547 ce. Brick, marble, and stone veneer; mosaic.
        • 52. Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul). Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. 532–537 ce. Brick and ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer.
        • 54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George Early Byzantine Europe. Sixth or early seventh century ce. Encaustic on wood.
        • 55. Lindisfarne Gospels: St. Matthew, cross-carpet page; St. Luke portrait page; St. Luke incipit page Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon) Europe. c. 700 ce. Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum).
        • 58. Church of Sainte-Foy Conques, France. Romanesque Europe. Church: c. 1050–1130 ce; Reliquary of Saint Foy: ninth century ce, with later additions. Stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary).
        • 60. Chartres Cathedral. Chartres, France. Gothic Europe. Original construction c. 1145–1155 CE; reconstructed c. 1194–1220 CE. Limestone, stained glass.
        • 61. Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France, Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bibles moralisées Gothic Europe. c. 1225–1245 ce. Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum).
        • 62. Röttgen Pietà Late medieval Europe. c. 1300–1325 ce. Painted wood.
        • 63. Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, including Lamentation. Padua, Italy. Unknown architect; Giotto di Bondone (artist). Chapel: c. 1303 CE; Fresco: c. 1305 CE. Brick (architecture) and fresco.
        • 66. Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece). Workshop of Robert Campin. 1427–1432 CE. Oil on wood.
        • 67. Pazzi Chapel Basilica di Santa Croce. Florence, Italy. Filippo Brunelleschi (architect). c. 1429–1461 ce. Masonry.
        • 69. David Donatello. c. 1440–1460 ce. Bronze.
        • 71. Madonna and Child with Two Angels. Fra Filippo Lippi. c. 1465 CE. Tempera on wood.
        • 72. Birth of Venus. Sandro Botticelli. c. 1484–1486 CE. Tempera on canvas.
        • 73. Last Supper. Leonardo da Vinci. c. 1494–1498 ce. Oil and tempera.
        • 74. Adam and Eve. Albrecht Dürer. 1504 ce. Engraving.
        • 75. Sistine Chapel ceiling and altar wall frescoes Vatican City, Italy. Michelangelo. Ceiling frescoes: c. 1508–1512 CE; altar frescoes: c. 1536–1541 CE. Fresco.
        • 77. Isenheim altarpiece. Matthias Grünewald. c. 1512–1516 ce. Oil on wood.
        • 78. Entombment of Christ. Jacopo da Pontormo. 1525–1528 ce. Oil on wood.
        • 79. Allegory of Law and Grace. Lucas Cranach the Elder. c. 1530 ce. Woodcut and letterpress.
        • 82. Il Gesù, including Triumph of the Name of Jesus ceiling fresco. Rome, Italy. Giacomo da Vignola, plan (architect); Giacomo della Porta, facade (architect); Giovanni Battista Gaulli, ceiling fresco (artist). Church: 16th century CE; facade: 1568–1584 CE; fresco and stucco figures: 1676–1679 CE. Brick, marble, fresco, and stucco.
        • 85. Calling of Saint Matthew. Caravaggio. c. 1597–1601 ce. Oil on canvas.
        • 88. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Rome, Italy. Francesco Borromini (architect). 1638–1646 CE. Stone and stucco.
        • 89. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome, Italy. Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1647–1652 ce. Marble (sculpture); stucco and gilt bronze (chapel).
        • 95. The Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe). Miguel González. c. 1698 ce. Based on original Virgin of Guadalupe. Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City. 16th century ce. Oil on canvas on wood, inlaid with mother-of-pearl.

Medieval Islamic Art:

Read more: Medieval Al-Andalus

Essential Knowledge: Medieval figurative and aniconic two- and three dimensional works of art are characterized by stylistic variety, avoidance of naturalism, primarily religious or courtly subject matter, and the incorporation of text.

Avoidance of Naturalism in Medieval Figurative Art:

        • 53. Merovingian looped fibulae. Early medieval Europe. Mid-sixth century ce. Silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones.
        • 54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George Early Byzantine Europe. Sixth or early seventh century ce. Encaustic on wood.
        • 55. Lindisfarne Gospels: St. Matthew, cross-carpet page; St. Luke portrait page; St. Luke incipit page. Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon) Europe. c. 700 ce. Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum).
        • 59. Bayeux Tapestry. Romanesque Europe (English or Norman). c. 1066–1080 ce. Embroidery on linen.
        • 60. Chartres Cathedral. Chartres, France. Gothic Europe. Original construction c. 1145–1155 CE; reconstructed c. 1194–1220 CE. Limestone, stained glass.
        • 61. Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France, Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bibles moralisées. Gothic Europe. c. 1225–1245 ce. Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum).
        • 62. Röttgen Pietà. Late medieval Europe. c. 1300–1325 ce. Painted wood
        • 64. Golden Haggadah (The Plagues of Egypt, Scenes of Liberation, and Preparation for Passover). Late medieval Spain. c. 1320 CE. Illuminated manuscript (pigments and gold leaf on vellum).

Medieval Aniconic Art:

Essential Knowledge: The early modern Atlantic World (from approximately 1400 to 1850 ce) encompasses what is known today as Western Europe—specifically Italy, Spain, France, Germany, England, Belgium, and the Netherlands—and those territories in the Americas that were part of the Spanish empire, including the Caribbean, the Western and Southwestern regions of the United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America. Study of this art historical period, and specifically of the European material traditionally identified by the more familiar labels of Renaissance and Baroque, is canonical in the discipline and is thus extremely well documented.

Spanish Empire Art:

        • 56. Great Mosque. Córdoba, Spain. Umayyad. c. 785–786 CE. Stone masonry.
        • 64. Golden Haggadah (The Plagues of Egypt, Scenes of Liberation, and Preparation for Passover). Late medieval Spain. c. 1320 CE. Illuminated manuscript (pigments and gold leaf on vellum).
        • 65. Alhambra. Granada, Spain. Nasrid Dynasty. 1354–1391 CE. Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding.
        • 81. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza. Viceroyalty of New Spain. c. 1541–1542 ce. Ink and color on paper.
        • 90. Angel with Arquebus, Asiel Timor Dei. Master of Calamarca (La Paz School). c. 17th century ce. Oil on canvas.
        • 91. Las Meninas. Diego Velázquez. c. 1656 CE. Oil on canvas.
        • 94. Screen with the Siege of Belgrade and hunting scene. Circle of the González Family. c. 1697–1701 ce. Tempera and resin on wood, shell inlay.
        • 95. The Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe). Miguel González. c. 1698 ce. Based on original Virgin of Guadalupe. Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City. 16th century ce. Oil on canvas on wood, inlaid with mother-of-pearl.
        • 97. Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo. Attributed to Juan Rodríguez Juárez. c. 1715 ce. Oil on canvas

Italian Art:

        • 48. Catacomb of Priscilla. Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 200–400 CE. Excavated tufa and fresco.
        • 49. Santa Sabina Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 422–432 CE. Brick and stone, wooden roof.
        • 51. San Vitale. Ravenna, Italy. Early Byzantine Europe. c. 526–547 ce. Brick, marble, and stone veneer; mosaic.
        • 63. Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, including Lamentation. Padua, Italy. Unknown architect; Giotto di Bondone (artist). Chapel: c. 1303 CE; Fresco: c. 1305 CE. Brick (architecture) and fresco.
        • 67. Pazzi Chapel Basilica di Santa Croce. Florence, Italy. Filippo Brunelleschi (architect). c. 1429–1461 ce. Masonry.
        • 69. David. Donatello. c. 1440–1460 ce. Bronze.
        • 70. Palazzo Rucellai. Florence, Italy. Leon Battista Alberti (architect). c. 1450 ce. Stone, masonry.
        • 71. Madonna and Child with Two Angels. Fra Filippo Lippi. c. 1465 CE. Tempera on wood.
        • 72. Birth of Venus. Sandro Botticelli. c. 1484–1486 CE. Tempera on canvas.
        • 73. Last Supper. Leonardo da Vinci. c. 1494–1498 ce. Oil and tempera.
        • 75. Sistine Chapel ceiling and altar wall frescoes Vatican City, Italy. Michelangelo. Ceiling frescoes: c. 1508–1512 CE; altar frescoes: c. 1536–1541 CE. Fresco.
        • 76. School of Athens. Raphael. 1509–1511 ce. Fresco.
        • 78. Entombment of Christ. Jacopo da Pontormo. 1525–1528 ce. Oil on wood.
        • 80. Venus of Urbino. Titian. c. 1538 ce. Oil on canvas.
        • 82. Il Gesù, including Triumph of the Name of Jesus ceiling fresco. Rome, Italy. Giacomo da Vignola, plan (architect); Giacomo della Porta, facade (architect); Giovanni Battista Gaulli, ceiling fresco (artist). Church: 16th century CE; facade: 1568–1584 CE; fresco and stucco figures: 1676–1679 CE. Brick, marble, fresco, and stucco.
        • 85. Calling of Saint Matthew. Caravaggio. c. 1597–1601 ce. Oil on canvas.
        • 88. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Rome, Italy. Francesco Borromini (architect). 1638–1646 CE. Stone and stucco.
        • 89. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome, Italy. Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1647–1652 ce. Marble (sculpture); stucco and gilt bronze (chapel).

French Art:

        • 53. Merovingian looped fibulae. Early medieval Europe. Mid-sixth century ce. Silver g
        • 58. Church of Sainte-Foy. Conques, France. Romanesque Europe. Church: c. 1050–1130 ce; Reliquary of Saint Foy: ninth century ce, with later additions. Stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary).
        • 60. Chartres Cathedral. Chartres, France. Gothic Europe. Original construction c. 1145–1155 CE; reconstructed c. 1194–1220 CE. Limestone, stained glass.
        • 61. Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France, Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bibles moralisées. Gothic Europe. c. 1225–1245 ce. Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum).
        • 86. Henri IV Receives the Portrait of Marie de’ Medici, from the Marie de’ Medici Cycle. Peter Paul Rubens. 1621–1625 ce. Oil on canvas.
        • 93. The Palace at Versailles. Versailles, France. Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart (architects). Begun 1669 ce. Masonry, stone, wood, iron, and gold leaf (architecture); marble and bronze (sculpture); gardens.

British Art:

        • 55. Lindisfarne Gospels: St. Matthew, cross-carpet page; St. Luke portrait page; St. Luke incipit page. Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon) Europe. c. 700 ce. Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum).
        • 59. Bayeux Tapestry. Romanesque Europe (English or Norman). c. 1066–1080 ce. Embroidery on linen
        • 98. The Tête à Tête, from Marriage à la Mode. William Hogarth. c. 1743 ce. Oil on canvas.

The Low Countries Art:

        • 66. Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece). Workshop of Robert Campin. 1427–1432 CE. Oil on wood.
        • 68. The Arnolfini Portrait. Jan van Eyck. c. 1434 ce. Oil on wood.
        • 83. Hunters in the Snow. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. 1565 CE. Oil on wood.
        • 86. Henri IV Receives the Portrait of Marie de’ Medici, from the Marie de’ Medici Cycle. Peter Paul Rubens. 1621–1625 ce. Oil on canvas.
        • 87. Self-Portrait with Saskia. Rembrandt van Rijn. 1636 ce. Etching.
        • 92. Woman Holding a Balance. Johannes Vermeer. c. 1664 CE. Oil on canvas.
        • 96. Fruit and Insects. Rachel Ruysch. 1711 CE. Oil on wood.

Essential Knowledge: The arts of 15th-century Europe reflected an interest in classical models, enhanced naturalism, Christianity, pageantry, and increasingly formalized artistic training.

Classically Inspired (Renaissance) Art:

        • 63. Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, including Lamentation. Padua, Italy. Unknown architect; Giotto di Bondone (artist). Chapel: c. 1303 CE; Fresco: c. 1305 CE. Brick (architecture) and fresco.
        • 67. Pazzi Chapel Basilica di Santa Croce. Florence, Italy. Filippo Brunelleschi (architect). c. 1429–1461 ce. Masonry.
        • 69. David. Donatello. c. 1440–1460 ce. Bronze.
        • 70. Palazzo Rucellai. Florence, Italy. Leon Battista Alberti (architect). c. 1450 ce. Stone, masonry.
        • 71. Madonna and Child with Two Angels. Fra Filippo Lippi. c. 1465 CE. Tempera on wood.
        • 72. Birth of Venus. Sandro Botticelli. c. 1484–1486 CE. Tempera on canvas.
        • 73. Last Supper. Leonardo da Vinci. c. 1494–1498 ce. Oil and tempera.
        • 75. Sistine Chapel ceiling and altar wall frescoes Vatican City, Italy. Michelangelo. Ceiling frescoes: c. 1508–1512 CE; altar frescoes: c. 1536–1541 CE. Fresco.
        • 76. School of Athens. Raphael. 1509–1511 ce. Fresco.
        • 80. Venus of Urbino. Titian. c. 1538 ce. Oil on canvas.
        • 82. Il Gesù, including Triumph of the Name of Jesus ceiling fresco. Rome, Italy. Giacomo da Vignola, plan (architect); Giacomo della Porta, facade (architect); Giovanni Battista Gaulli, ceiling fresco (artist). Church: 16th century CE; facade: 1568–1584 CE; fresco and stucco figures: 1676–1679 CE. Brick, marble, fresco, and stucco.

Essential Knowledge: The 16th-century Protestant Reformation and subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation compelled a divergence between western European art in the north and south with respect to form, function, and content. Production of religious imagery declined in northern Europe, and nonreligious genres, such as landscape, still life, genre, history, mythology, and portraiture, developed and flourished. In the south, there was an increase in the production of political propaganda, religious imagery, and pageantry, with the elaboration of naturalism, dynamic compositions, bold color schemes, and the affective power of images and constructed spaces.

Protestant Reformation Art:

        • 79. Allegory of Law and Grace. Lucas Cranach the Elder. c. 1530 ce. Woodcut and letterpress.

Northern European Non-Religious Art:

        • 68. The Arnolfini Portrait. Jan van Eyck. c. 1434 ce. Oil on wood.
        • 83. Hunters in the Snow. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. 1565 CE. Oil on wood.
        • 87. Self-Portrait with Saskia. Rembrandt van Rijn. 1636 ce. Etching.
        • 92. Woman Holding a Balance. Johannes Vermeer. c. 1664 CE. Oil on canvas.
        • 96. Fruit and Insects. Rachel Ruysch. 1711 CE. Oil on wood.

Catholic Counter-Reformation Art:

        • 82. Il Gesù, including Triumph of the Name of Jesus ceiling fresco. Rome, Italy. Giacomo da Vignola, plan (architect); Giacomo della Porta, facade (architect); Giovanni Battista Gaulli, ceiling fresco (artist). Church: 16th century CE; facade: 1568–1584 CE; fresco and stucco figures: 1676–1679 CE. Brick, marble, fresco, and stucco.
        • 88. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Rome, Italy. Francesco Borromini (architect). 1638–1646 CE. Stone and stucco.
        • 89. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome, Italy. Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1647–1652 ce. Marble (sculpture); stucco and gilt bronze (chapel).
Read more: Falling in Love with Still-life Painting

Essential Knowledge: In the 17th century, architectural design and figuration in painting and sculpture continued to be based on classical principles and formulas but with a pronounced interest in compositional complexity, dynamic movement, and theatricality. There was an increasing emphasis on time, narrative, heightened naturalism, and psychological or emotional impact.

Baroque Art:

        • 88. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Rome, Italy. Francesco Borromini (architect). 1638–1646 CE. Stone and stucco.
        • 89. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome, Italy. Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1647–1652 ce. Marble (sculpture); stucco and gilt bronze (chapel).
        • 85. Calling of Saint Matthew. Caravaggio. c. 1597–1601 ce. Oil on canvas.
        • 91. Las Meninas. Diego Velázquez. c. 1656 CE. Oil on canvas.
        • 92. Woman Holding a Balance. Johannes Vermeer. c. 1664 CE. Oil on canvas.
        • 96. Fruit and Insects. Rachel Ruysch. 1711 CE. Oil on wood.
Read more: AP Art History Hunting in Rome, Italy

Suggested Works:

  • 48. Catacomb of Priscilla. Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 200–400 CE. Excavated tufa and fresco
  • 60. Chartres Cathedral. Chartres, France. Gothic Europe. Original construction c. 1145–1155 CE; reconstructed c. 1194–1220 CE. Limestone, stained glass.
  • 63. Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, including Lamentation. Padua, Italy. Unknown architect; Giotto di Bondone (artist). Chapel: c. 1303 CE; Fresco: c. 1305 CE. Brick (architecture) and fresco.
  • 64. Golden Haggadah (The Plagues of Egypt, Scenes of Liberation, and Preparation for Passover). Late medieval Spain. c. 1320 CE. Illuminated manuscript (pigments and gold leaf on vellum).
  • 65. Alhambra. Granada, Spain. Nasrid Dynasty. 1354–1391 CE. Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding.
  • 66. Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece). Workshop of Robert Campin. 1427–1432 CE. Oil on wood.
  • 71. Madonna and Child with Two Angels. Fra Filippo Lippi. c. 1465 CE. Tempera on wood.
  • 72. Birth of Venus. Sandro Botticelli. c. 1484–1486 CE. Tempera on canvas.
  • 75. Sistine Chapel ceiling and altar wall frescoes Vatican City, Italy. Michelangelo. Ceiling frescoes: c. 1508–1512 CE; altar frescoes: c. 1536–1541 CE. Fresco
  • 78. Entombment of Christ. Jacopo da Pontormo. 1525–1528 ce. Oil on wood.
  • 79. Allegory of Law and Grace. Lucas Cranach the Elder. c. 1530 ce. Woodcut and letterpress.
  • 82. Il Gesù, including Triumph of the Name of Jesus ceiling fresco. Rome, Italy. Giacomo da Vignola, plan (architect); Giacomo della Porta, facade (architect); Giovanni Battista Gaulli, ceiling fresco (artist). Church: 16th century CE; facade: 1568–1584 CE; fresco and stucco figures: 1676–1679 CE. Brick, marble, fresco, and stucco.
  • 83. Hunters in the Snow. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. 1565 CE. Oil on wood.
  • 88. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Rome, Italy. Francesco Borromini (architect). 1638–1646 CE. Stone and stucco.
  • 89. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome, Italy. Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1647–1652 ce. Marble (sculpture); stucco and gilt bronze (chapel).
  • 91. Las Meninas. Diego Velázquez. c. 1656 CE. Oil on canvas.
  • 92. Woman Holding a Balance. Johannes Vermeer. c. 1664 CE. Oil on canvas.
  • 96. Fruit and Insects. Rachel Ruysch. 1711 CE. Oil on wood.

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