03. Early Europe & Colonial Americas, 04. Later Europe & Americas, 06. Africa, 07. Central & West Asia, Islam, Religion

AP Art History 250: Mosque Vocabulary

AP Art History 250: Mosque Vocabulary

A few months back I complied this (epic) blog post on the AP Art History 250: Church Vocabulary. It was intense. Well I had a request for one on mosque vocabulary & here it is! Below is a straight list in chronological order of the mosques in the AP Art History 250 with important vocabulary words & definitions that go with each mosque. Feel free to share with your students if you are an AP Art History teacher!

JMF

P.S. CLICK HERE for a list of all the vocab words below in alphabetical order in a PDF

P.P.S. As always, tell me if something is missing, I’m going crossed-eyed going over this list! 🙂


#52. Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul). Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. 532–537 ce. Brick and ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer.

*Note: yes, I am fully aware that this building was originally built as a church but it was transformed into a mosque with the conquest of the Byzantines by the Ottoman Empire so I put the church related vocabulary in AP Art History 250: Church Vocabulary blog post & the mosque related words here.

  • Mosque: (Masjid in Arabic) place of Muslim prayer, it is required that men pray in a mosque at the Friday noon service
  • Minaret: a tower for the call to prayer by a muezzin 
  • Mihrab: a designated, often elaborate area, on the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca (qibla)
  • Minbar: pulpit for the imam (Islamic religious leader)
  • Qibla: direction towards Mecca
  • Dome: (Qubba in Arabic) a rounded vault forming the roof of a building
  • Centrally-planned mosque: a square or rectangular building with a large, column-less, central prayer space

Read more at Khan Academy: Common types of mosque architecture

#54. Great Mosque. Córdoba, Spain. Umayyad. c. 785–786 CE. Stone masonry.

*Note: after the Reconquista, this mosque had a cathedral literally plopped in the middle of it, so if you go today you get to see an incredible combination of architectural and religious styles

  • Mosque: (Masjid in Arabic) place of Muslim prayer, it is required that men pray in a mosque at the Friday noon service
  • Minaret: a tower for the call to prayer by a muezzin 
  • Mihrab: a designated, often elaborate area, on the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca (qibla)
  • Minbar: pulpit for the imam (Islamic religious leader)
  • Qibla: direction towards Mecca
  • Maqsura: elaborately decorated, separate area in a mosque, often near the mihrab and minbar, used by a ruler to convey status
  • Hypostyle mosque: rectangular mosque with a columned hall, based off the house of Muhammad
  • Sahn: courtyard

Read more: #56. Great Mosque. Córdoba, Spain. Umayyad. c. 785–786 CE. Stone masonry.

#84. Mosque of Selim II. Edirne, Turkey. Sinan (architect). 1568–1575 CE. Brick and stone.

  • Mosque: (Masjid in Arabic) place of Muslim prayer, it is required that men pray in a mosque at the Friday noon service
  • Minaret: a tower for the call to prayer by a muezzin 
  • Mihrab: a designated, often elaborate area, on the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca (qibla)
  • Minbar: pulpit for the imam (Islamic religious leader)
  • Qibla: direction towards Mecca
  • Dome: (Qubba in Arabic) a rounded vault forming the roof of a building
  • Centrally-planned mosque: a square or rectangular building with a large, column-less, central prayer space
  • Sahn: courtyard

Read more: Travel Trips: Dressing for a Mosque

#168. Great Mosque of Djenné. Mali. Founded c. 1200 CE; rebuilt 1906–1907 CE. Adobe.

  • Mosque: (Masjid in Arabic) place of Muslim prayer, it is required that men pray in a mosque at the Friday noon service
  • Minaret: a tower for the call to prayer by a muezzin 
  • Mihrab: a designated, often elaborate area, on the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca (qibla)
  • Minbar: pulpit for the imam (Islamic religious leader)
  • Qibla: direction towards Mecca
  • Hypostyle mosque: rectangular mosque with a columned hall, based off the house of Muhammad
  • Sahn: courtyard

Read more: The Diversity of the Islamic World

#186. Great Mosque (Masjid-e Jameh). Isfahan, Iran. Islamic, Persian: Seljuk, Il-Khanid, Timurid and Safavid Dynasties. c. 700 CE; additions and restorations in the 14th, 18th, and 20th centuries CE. Stone, brick, wood, plaster, and glazed ceramic tile.

  • Mosque: (Masjid in Arabic) place of Muslim prayer, it is required that men pray in a mosque at the Friday noon service
  • Minaret: a tower for the call to prayer by a muezzin 
  • Mihrab: a designated, often elaborate area, on the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca (qibla)
  • Minbar: pulpit for the imam (Islamic religious leader)
  • Qibla: direction towards Mecca
  • Masjid-e jameh or jami masjid: Friday mosque
  • Iwan: vaulted space that opens onto a courtyard
  • Four-iwan mosque: Persian-style mosque designed as an open courtyard with 4 vaulted spaces on each wall of the courtyard
  • Sahn: courtyard

Read more at Khan Academy: Introduction to mosque architecture

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