This post was actually written by one of my Humanities students who has NEVER taken AP Art History, but it is a perfect post connecting to the Doryphorus. I shared it with my students as a review and they loved it when I told them that it was written by one of my students.
The Greek Definition of Beauty
Ancient Greeks believed that the physical manifestation of beauty was a reflection of psychological beauty. The relationship between physical handsomeness and spiritual beauty was taught be Aristotle. Conversely, Plato believed in the Ideal Form of Beauty. He reasoned that though humans could never truly be physically ‘perfect,’ humanity was still able to recognize what was beautiful. Greek philosophers were concerned more by what was psychologically, emotionally, or spiritually beautiful, rather than what was aesthetically attractive.
“He must grasp that the beauties of the body are as nothing to the beauties of the soul, so that wherever he meets with spiritual loveliness, even in the husk of an unlovely body, he will find it beautiful enough to fall in love with… And when he discovers how every kind of beauty is akin to every other he will conclude that the beauty of the body is not, after all, of so great moment. …”
Geometry in the Male Nude
Principles of geometry were frequently used to measure beauty. The symmetry of the human body and face were beautiful, as were the idealistic proportions of the human form. Polyklitus, the father of Classical Greek sculpture, was renowned for incorporating mathematical proportions and symmetry into his sculptures of the male nude. He wrote a treatise titled The Kanon, in which he discussed sculpting the perfect male figure using geometry. The men depicted in Polyklitus’s style are posed in contrapposto. The contrapposto style is recognizable by the balance of the statue’s weight on one foot, and for the asymmetrical line of the hips and shoulders. Polyklitus’s revolutionary use of geometry in depicting the human form created the ideal male figure. Male nudes seemed to be suspended in movement, filled with life. The naturalistic poses reflected the musculature and power of the male body.
The statue above, Diadoumenos, is a one of Polyclitus’s notable works. The male youth pictured is posed in the style of contrapposto. The line of the athletic, muscular youth’s shoulders contrasts the line of his hips. His knees are in parallel to his hips, and his weight is placed on his right foot. He is suspended in movement, emphasizing his athleticism. The power of the male body is reflected in his exaggerated musculature. The Diadoumenos reflects the prominence of male beauty in Ancient Greece. The idealized male body is mirrored in the sculpture’s youthful face and athletic physique.
The Emphasis of Male Beauty in Ancient Greece
Men were an important facet of Ancient Greek culture. The Greeks were talented warriors, and honored military culture. Young men entered the military at age twenty. Greek warriors are remembered in legendary mythology, where their beauty is immortalized in oral tradition. For instance, Achilles is described as a handsome blond who is the physical manifestation of the divine and human. Even more notable is Adonis, a beautiful male youth who Aphrodite fancies. The talented hunter is ultimately gouged to death by a boar, but his beauty is still a testament to the idealized Greek male.
In the painting above, Adonis is pictured with Aphrodite and Eros (aka Cupid). His muscled torso suggests the muscled figure of male warriors or hunters. His long, dark hair symbolizes heath and virility. His nudity suggests the pride of the Greek men may have felt towards their bodies or gender.
The exaggerated musculature in Greek renderings of the male nude reflect the importance of the Greek military. Warriors would have been healthy, strong young men who were physically capable of defending ancient Greek kingdoms and city-states. The idealized attitudes towards male warriors are honored in male nudes. Sculptures of the male figure show pronounced abdominal muscles, and an exaggerated iliac region (the sharp lines where the hips meet the torso). The youthful faces of adolescent boys or young-adult men are relaxed and full-lipped, mirroring the ages of Greek warriors. The nude sculpture idolizes the athletic Greek male, and the pride taken in male beauty. The Diskobolos, or discus-thrower, is pictured below. He is a Greek athlete; the power of the male figure is demonstrated by his pronounced muscles, and the movement of his stance.
Connection to Pop Culture
Male beauty is a relevant facet of today’s popular culture. Male pop stars and actors are commonly displayed shirtless on magazine covers. The use of social media has allowed men to share pictures of their faces and bodies around the world. For instance, Instagram has allowed male models to promote share photo-ops with female and male consumers alike.
Hollywood actors are often referenced as pinnacles of male beauty in the United States. The muscular, full-lipped, sharp-jawed male is still found attractive in today’s Western cultures. Although statues of male nudes may not be common media forms today, male beauty is immortalized in movies, music, magazines, and social media.
- “The Aesthetic Ideal in Ancient Greece.” In History of Beauty, edited by Umberto Eco, 42-50. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc, 2004.
- Cartwright, Mark. “Greek Sculpture.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Published on 20 January 2013. www.ancient.eu/Greek_Sculpture/
- Conger, Cristen. Why Men Have Short Hair. Stuff Your Mom Never Told You – How Stuff Works. YouTube Video. Published 5 May, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7yKrzHAGj2c
- Harris, Dr. Beth and Tucker, Dr. Steven. Contrapposto. Khan Academy. Youtube video. Published 28 December, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1iTC9cBk6Ac